Granulation usually occurs in both anaerobic and anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic granulation process has been mentioned in many studies. However, aerobic granulation has only been studied in recently. The anaerobic sludge technology has been extensively used in industrial process. In contrast, the application of this technology in aerobic conditions is still limited as there is still lack of research providing the scientific basis for this application. Aerobic sludge was mainly recorded in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with hydraulic selection. Aerobic granules have been found to be effective in nitrogen removal and decomposition of high loading organic matter. This article provides information on the formation of aerobic sludge, the characteristics of aerobic granules, the factors influencing the formation and maintenance of steady state of aerobic granules and the application prospects in wastewater treatment.
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